retention of part of the placenta. If the
baby lies in the breech position (see
breech delivery),
caesarean section may
be necessary. Multiple pregnancies (see
pregnancy, multiple)
carry an increased
risk of premature labour and of prob-
lems during delivery. If the mother's
pelvis is too small in proportion to the
head of her baby, delivery by caesarean
section is necessary.
childbirth, natural
The use of relaxation
and other techniques to help cope with
pain and minimize the use of drugs and
medical intervention during childbirth.
child development
The acquisition of
physical, mental, and social skills in chil-
dren. Although there is wide variation in
individual rates of progress, most children
develop certain skills within predictable
age ranges. For example, most infants
start to walk at 12-18 months. Capability
for new skills is linked to the maturity of
the child's nervous system. Individual rates
of maturity are determined genetically
and modified by environmental factors
in the
and after birth. Develop-
ment is assessed in early childhood by
looking at abilities in 4 main areas: loco-
motion; hearing and speech; vision and
fine movement; and social behaviour
and play. (See also
developmental delay.)
child guidance A multidisciplinary diag-
nosis and advice team service for children
suffering from emotional or
problems in children.
Indications of prob-
lems include poor performance at school,
disruptive or withdrawn behaviour, law-
breaking, and
drug abuse.
Child guidance professionals include
psychiatrists, psychologists, and psychi-
atric social workers. For young children,
play therapy
may be used for diagnosis.
Older children may be offered
selling, psychotherapy,
group therapy.
Family therapy
may be used in cases
where there are difficulties between the
child and
or both parents.
A shivering attack accompanied by
chattering teeth, pale skin, goose pim-
ples, and feeling cold. Chill frequently
precedes a fever. Repeated or severe
shivering suggests serious illness.
Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese
medicine is generally based on the the-
ory that a universal life-force, called chi,
manifests itself in the body as
plementary qualities that are known as
yin and yang.
According to this belief,
vigorous yang and restraining yin must be
in balance, and the chi must flow evenly
for good health. Treatments for illness
aim to restore the yin-yang balance and
normalize the flow of chi using tech-
niques such as Chinese
herbal medicine
acupressure, acupuncture,
t'ai chi.
The examination, diagnosis,
treatment, and prevention of diseases
and malfunctions of the foot and its
related structures.
A complementary treatment
for a range of disorders, including
, based on manipulation of the spine.
chlamydial infections
Infectious dis-
eases caused by chlamydiae, a group
of microorganisms. Two main species of
chlamydiae cause disease in humans.
The first,
chlamydia trachomatis,
has a
number of strains. In men, it is a major
cause of nongonococcal
, which
may cause a discharge from the penis.
In women, the infection is usually symp-
tomless, but it can lead to
. A
baby born to a woman with chlamydial
infection may acquire an acute eye con-
dition called neonatal
. In
parts of Africa and Asia, certain strains
chom a
, a serious eye disease.
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