CRI DU CHAT SYNDROME
A rare, non-hor-
mone-secreting tumour of the
Symptoms of a craniopharyngi-
oma may include headaches, vomiting,
and defective vision. If a craniopharyn-
gioma develops in childhood, growth
may become stunted and sexual develop-
ment may not occur. Craniopharyngiomas
are usually removed surgically. Untreated,
they may cause permanent brain damage.
The premature closure
of one or more of the joints (sutures)
between the curved, flattened bones of
in infants. If all the joints are
involved, the growing infant's
be compressed and there is a risk of brain
damage from pressure inside the skull.
If the abnormality is localized, the head
may be deformed. Craniosynostosis may
occur before birth and, in some cases,
is associated with other
may also occur in an otherwise healthy
baby, or in a baby affected by a disorder
. If the brain is com-
pressed, an operation may be performed
to separate the fused skull bones.
The temporary removal of
a section of the skull to perform an
operation on the
. A craniotomy
may be used in order to take a sample
of tissue for analysis, remove a
or drain an
or blood clot.
The part of the
A protein produced
in the body in response to inflammation.
A thick, semi-solid preparation
with moisturizing properties used to
apply medications to the skin.
A waste product produced
by muscles and filtered from the blood by
the kidneys to be excreted in
A crackling sound in the
lungs (heard through a
caused by abnormal build-up of fluid.
A grating sound or sensation
caused by rough surfaces rubbing to-
gether. Crepitus may be felt or heard
when the ends of a broken bone rub
against each other, or when
the surfaces of a joint has worn away in
Faint crepitus can be heard
in the lung as a result of, for example,
also describes the sound made when air
under the skin (see
acterized by stunted growth and failure
of normal development, and, in infants,
coarse facial features. Cretinism results
fails to produce
or produces insufficient amounts of the
Replacement therapy with thyroxine is a
cure, provided the condition is recog-
nized early. (See also
rapidly progressive degenerative condi-
tion of the
disease (CJD) is thought to be due to an
infection with a
(slow virus). This is
similar to the agent that causes scrapie
in sheep and
bovine spongiform en-
(BSE) in cattle. One main
variant of CjD largely affects middle-
aged or elderly people and has no
obvious cause. A second main variant,
occurring in younger people, is associ-
ated with contamination during brain
surgery or transplants from infected
people, or treatment with human growth
Recently, a 3rd variant, called new vari-
ant (nv) CjD, that attacks people in their
s has been identified.
NvCjD causes pathological changes in
the brain similar to those seen in BSE-
infected cattle. It is thought to be
acquired by eating infected beef.
Symptoms are similar for all variants.
(sudden muscular contractions) occur;
muscular coordination diminishes; the
intellect and personality deteriorate; and
blindness may develop. As the disease
progresses, speech is lost and the body
becomes rigid. There is no treatment and
death usually occurs within 2-3 years.
cri du chat syndrome
condition of severe
abnormal facial appearance, low birth
weight, and short stature, which is
characterized by a cat-like cry in infancy.
The syndrome is caused by a
. There is no treatment.