Glycerol is used in moisturizing creams.
It is also used in eardrops to soften ear-
wax and in
soothe a dry, irritating cough.
used to treat and prevent symptoms of
High doses may cause a
headache, flushing, and dizziness.
The main form of
stored in the body, found mainly in the
liver and in muscles. When there is too
much glucose in the blood, the excess
is converted to glycogen by the action
When the blood glucose level is low, gly-
cogen is converted back to glucose (a
process regulated by
and released into the bloodstream.
The presence of
the urine. Glycosuria results from failure
to reabsorb glucose back
into the bloodstream after the blood
has been filtered. This may be due to
, as in
or may occur if the kidney tubules have
been damaged. However, glycosuria is
usually only significant if accompanied
by a high blood glucose level. Glyco-
suria often occurs during pregnancy
when the blood glucose level is normal.
Glycosuria is diagnosed by
Treatment depends on the cause.
A form of
that is bound to the sugar
glucose. In most people, 3-8 per cent of
haemoglobin is glycosylated. In people
, the level of glyco-
sylated haemoglobin may be raised if
treatment has not kept the blood glu-
cose level within the normal range.
Glycosylated haemoglobin levels indi-
cate blood glucose levels over the
preceding 3 months.
Enlargement of the
visible as a swelling on the neck. The
thyroid gland may enlarge (without any
disturbance of its function) at
during pregnancy, or as a result of tak-
In many parts of
the world the main cause of a goitre is
in the diet. A condition
called toxic goitre develops in
and in other forms of
that lead to
goitre is also a feature of different types
Other causes include a
tumour or nodule in the gland and, in
A goitre can range in size from a barely
noticeable lump to a large swelling, de-
pending on the cause. Large swellings
may press on the
making swallowing or breathing difficult.
A goitre not caused by disease may
eventually disappear. Goitre due to iodine
deficiency can be treated by dietary mea-
sures. When a goitre is the result of
disease, treatment is for the underlying
disorder. Large goitres can be treated
used to treat
ally, arthritis arising as a complication
. It is given either as regular
injections or orally (see
common adverse effect is
Gold may damage the kidneys, liver,
and bone marrow and may cause loss of
appetite, nausea, and diarrhoea.
A painful condition caused
by inflammation of the
prominence) on the inner
, at the
site of attachment of some forearm mus-
cles. Golfer's elbow is caused by overuse
of these muscles, which bend the wrist
and fingers. Activities such as using a
screwdriver or playing golf with a faulty
grip can cause the condition. Treatment
consists of resting the elbow, applying
ice-packs, and taking
relieve pain. If the pain is severe or per-
sistent, injection of a
into the area may help.