a sensation of not being able to take a
full breath. Breathing into a paper bag
may help to reduce the symptoms in
people with anxiety.
Blood in the front chamber
usually caused by an injury
that ruptures a small blood vessel in
may be blurred vision, but the blood
usually disappears completely within a
few days and vision is restored.
A trance-like state of altered
awareness characterized by extreme sug-
gestibility. Some psychoanalysts induce
a hypnotic state as a means of helping
patients remember and come to terms
with disturbing events. More often, hyp-
nosis is used to help patients to relax. It
may be useful in people suffering from
those wishing to correct addictive habits.
The use of
part of a psychological therapy.
Drugs that induce sleep
A prefix meaning under, below, or
less than normal.
A rare deficiency
of the hormone
, which is
produced by the
condition may be caused by damage or
disease affecting the adrenal glands. It
may produce weakness, and is treated
by the drug fludrocortisone.
An abnormally low level
in the blood. The most com-
mon cause is
causes include chronic
In mild cases, hypo-
calcaemia is symptomless; in severe
cases, it leads to
. It may also result
in bone softening, causing
A person's unrealis-
tic belief that he or she is suffering
from a serious illness, despite medical
reassurance. Hypochondriacs worry con-
stantly about their health and interpret
any symptom, however trivial, as evi-
dence of disease.
Hypochondriasis may be a complica-
tion of other psychological disorders,
generalized a ^ iety disorder
and brain diseases such as
Other factors include social stresses
and personality type. Where possible,
treatment is of the underlying mental
disorder. Hypochondriasis without an
underlying cause is difficult to treat.
The region on each
side of the upper abdomen, situated
below the lower ribs.
which controls tongue movement.
An abnormally low level
in the blood. Almost all cases
of hypoglycaemia occur in people with
, in whom the
fails to produce enough
ing in an abnormally high level of
glucose. To lower the blood glucose
are given. Too high a dose of either can
reduce the blood glucose to too low a
level. Hypoglycaemia can also occur if a
diabetic person misses a meal or takes
strenuous exercise. Rarely, the condi-
tion can result from drinking too much
alcohol or from an insulin-producing
The main symptoms include
hunger, dizziness, trembling, headache,
, confusion, and sometimes
double vision. Behaviour is often irra-
tional and aggressive.
in severe cases. Hypoglycaemia may
also be the cause of seizures and jittery
behaviour in newborns.
Sugar should be eaten at the first sign
of a diabetic attack. An injection of either
glucose solution or the hormone gluca-
gon may be given in an emergency.
A group of
that are used to lower
blood glucose. Too high a dose may
provoke the onset of
Underactivity of the
. Hypogonadism may be
caused by disorders of the gonads or a
disorder of the
deficient production of
. In men, hypogonadism causes
the symptoms and signs of
deficiency; in women, it causes
Reduced activity of the
Hypohidrosis is a feature
of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, a
rare, inherited, incurable condition that