new, sterile ones. The scheme is aimed
at reducing the risks of infections, such
transmitted by the
sharing of contaminated needles.
needlestick injury Accidental puncture
of the skin by a contaminated hypoder-
mic needle. Hospital staff are most likely
to be at risk. Needlestick injuries carry
the risk of serious infections, such as
, and need immediate
attention. The wound should be cleaned
thoroughly; blood tests may be needed
to determine whether infection has
relieve moderate pain caused, for exam-
ple, by injury, surgery, or cancer. Possible
adverse effects include nausea, nervous-
ness, dry mouth, and difficulty sleeping.
Nelson's syndrome A rare disorder of
increased skin pigmentation. Nelson's
syndrome results from enlargement of
, which can follow
removal of the
(removal or destruc-
tion of the pituitary gland).
nematodes The scientific name for a
group of cylindrically shaped worms
), some of which can be
parasites of humans.
neologism The act of making up new
words that have a special meaning for
the inventor. The term also refers to the
invented words themselves. Persistent
neologism can be a feature of speech in
used in the
treatment of ear, eye, and skin infections,
often in combination with other drugs.
Neomycin is sometimes given to pre-
vent infection of the intestine prior to
surgery. Possible adverse effects include
rash and itching.
neonate A newly born infant, under the
age of 1 month (see
neonatology The branch of
concerned with the care of
infants and the treatment of disorders
during the first few weeks of life.
neoplasia A medical term for
formation. The term neoplasia does not
necessarily imply that the new growth is
; neoplasia also results in
tumours that are
neoplasm A medical term for a
(any new abnormal growth). Neoplasms
neostigmine A drug that is used to treat
(a rare autoimmune
disorder that causes muscle weakness).
Neostigmine increases the activity of
stimulates the contraction of muscles.
Possible adverse effects of neostigmine
include nausea and vomiting, increased
salivation, abdominal cramps, diarrhoea,
blurred vision, muscle cramps, sweating,
nephrectomy Surgical removal of 1 or
both of the
One of the most common reasons for
nephrectomy is to remove a cancerous
). A kidney may
also be removed if it is not functioning
normally due to injury, infection, or the
presence of stones (see
), or if it is causing severe
(high blood pressure).
On removal of a single kidney the re-
maining kidney takes over the workload.
If both kidneys are removed, the patient
nephritis Inflammation of 1 or both
. Nephritis may be caused by an
responses of the
), or metabolic disor-
ders, such as gout.
nephrocalcinosis Deposits of calcium
within the tissue of 1 or both
Nephrocalcinosis is not the same as
kidney stones (see
calculus, urinary tract
in which calcium particles develop in-
side the drainage channels of the kidney.
Nephrocalcinosis may occur in any
condition in which the level of calcium
in the blood is raised. It may also occur
as a result of taking excessive amounts
Treatment is of the underlying cause to
prevent further calcification.
nephrolithotomy The surgical removal
(stone) from the
Nephrolithotomy may be performed
through an abdominal incision, or via
a puncture incision in the back. Large