person is usually monitored with regular
scans, and the clot may clear up on its
own. (See also
extradural haemorrhage.)
sublimation In
psychoanalytic theory,
unconscious process by which primitive,
unacceptable impulses are redirected in-
to socially acceptable forms of behaviour.
sublingual A term meaning under the
tongue. Drugs taken sublingually, either
as tablets or spray, are rapidly absorbed
into the bloodstream via the lining of
the mouth. For example, nitrate tablets
are given sublingually to provide rapid
relief of an angina attack.
subluxated tooth A tooth displaced in
its socket as the result of an accident.
The upper front teeth are the most
vulnerable. A subluxated tooth can usu-
ally be manipulated back into position,
and is then immobilized (see
If the tooth's blood vessels are
root-canal treatment
is required.
subluxation Incomplete
of a
, in which the surfaces of the bones
remain in partial contact.
submucous resection An operation to
correct a
deviated nasal septum
subphrenic abscess An
the diaphragm.
substance abuse The use of drugs or
other substances for a purpose other
than that which is normally recommen-
ded. Stimulant drugs, solvents, and
glue, are all commonly abused. Prob-
lems may arise due to adverse effects or
from the habit-forming potential of the
substance. (See also
drug abuse
substrate A substance on which an
sucking chest wound An open wound
in the chest wall through which air pas-
ses, causing the lung on that side to
collapse. Severe breathlessness and a
life-threatening lack of oxygen result.
sucralfate An
ulcer-healing drug
to treat
peptic ulcer
. Possible side effects
are constipation and abdominal pain.
suction The removal of unwanted fluid or
semi-fluid material from the body with
a syringe and hollow needle or with an
intestinal tube and a mechanical pump.
suction lipectomy A cosmetic proced-
ure, also called
, that is used
body contour surgery
sudden death See
death, sudden.
sudden infant death syndrome The
sudden, unexpected death of an infant
that cannot be explained.
Possible risk factors include: laying
the baby face-down to sleep; overheat-
ing; parental smoking after the birth;
and low birth weight; and
poor socioeconomic background.
Preventive measures include: ensuring
that the baby sleeps on its back at the
foot of the cot; regulating the baby's
temperature (using the same amount of
clothing and blankets that an adult
would need); and stopping smoking.
Sudeck's atrophy Swelling and loss of
use of a hand or foot after a
other injury. Treatment includes eleva-
tion of the affected hand or foot, gentle
exercise, and
heat treatment.
Full recov-
ery is usual within about 4 months.
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