A condition in which there
is a lack of oxygen due to obstruction to
the passage of air into the lungs. (See
asphyxia; choking; strangulation.)
The act of intentionally killing
oneself. Suicide results from a person's
reaction to a perceivedly overwhelming
problem, such as social isolation, death
of a loved one, serious physical illness,
or financial problems. It is often the re-
sult of a psychiatric illness, such as severe
Suicide is most common among the
elderly. More men than women commit
suicide, although women attempt the
act more often (see
The most common method is poisoning,
usually by taking a drug overdose or by
inhaling car exhaust fumes.
Any deliberate act
of self-harm that is or is believed to be
life-threatening but that in effect proves
nonfatal. Attempted suicide is more
common in women and most common
in the 15-30 age group. The rate is high-
est in people with personality disorders
and in those who live in deprived urban
areas or have alcohol or drug problems.
Common precipitating factors include
the death of a loved one, financial wor-
ries, or severe loss of any kind that
The most common
method is drug overdose.
Urgent treatment is needed for
Longer-term therapy aims to
provide support and treat depression.
A drug used to relieve
It may cause nausea,
headache, fever, and loss of appetite.
A drug that reduces the
frequency of attacks of
include nausea and abdominal pain.
(NSAID) used to relieve joint
pain and stiffness in various types of
. Side effects are as
for other NSAIDs.
A group of
that has largely been
superseded by more effective and less
A mineral that is a constituent of
vitamin Bi (see
vitamin B complex
. In the body,
it is needed for the manufacture of
and is a constituent of
. It is
used in the form of a cream to treat
the treatment of
Giles de la Tourette's syndrome
that relieves acute attacks of
especially those that have not responded
; it is particularly effective
in treating cluster headaches. Sumatrip-
tan may cause chest pain and tightness,
flushing, dizziness, and weakness.
Inflammation of the
by overexposure to the sun. The
in sunlight may destroy cells
in the outer layer of the skin and dam-
age tiny blood vessels beneath.
Fair-skinned people are most suscep-
tible. The affected skin turns red and
tender and may become blistered. The
dead skin cells are later shed by peeling.
lotion soothes the burned
may be taken to
relieve discomfort. A high protection fac-
helps to prevent sunburn.
Severe sunburn in childhood increases
the risk of
in later life.
sunlight, adverse effects of
resulting from overexposure to sunlight.
Fair-skinned people are more suscepti-
and, in intense heat, can result
ed overexposure over a long period can
cause premature aging of the skin and
It increases the risk of
. Protection of the skin with
helps to prevent sun damage.
is an abnormal sensitiv-
ity to sunlight, resulting in a rash.
Exposure to sunlight can affect the
eyes, causing irritation of the conjunctiva,
sunglasses help to prevent eye problems.
Preparations that help to
protect the skin from the harmful effects
A common form of
Darkening of the
sure to sunlight. Specialized cells in the
epidermis respond to