withdrawal symptoms start after
8-12 hours and may last for 7-10 days.
Symptoms include restlessness, sweat-
ing, runny eyes and nose, yawning,
diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal cramps,
dilated pupils, loss of appetite, irritabil-
ity, weakness, tremor, and depression.
Withdrawal symptoms from
start after 12-24
hours, beginning with tremor, anxiety,
restlessness, and weakness, sometimes
followed by delirium, hallucinations, and,
occasionally, seizures. A period of pro-
longed sleep occurs 3-8 days after onset.
Withdrawal from
benzodiazepine drugs
may begin much more slowly and can
be life-threatening.
Withdrawal symptoms from
develop gradually over 24-48 hours and
include irritability, concentration prob-
lems, frustration, headaches, and anxiety.
Discontinuation of cocaine or amfe-
tamines results in extreme tiredness,
lethargy, and dizziness. Cocaine with-
drawal may also lead to tremor, severe
depression, and sweating.
Withdrawal symptoms from marijuana
include tremor, nausea, vomiting, diar-
rhoea, sweating, irritability, and sleep
problems. Caffeine withdrawal may lead
to tiredness, headaches, and irritability.
Severe withdrawal syndromes require
medical treatment. Symptoms may be
suppressed by giving the patient small
quantities of the drug he or she had been
taking. More commonly, a substitute drug
is given, such as
for opioid
drugs or
for alcohol. The dose
of the drug is then gradually reduced.
wobble board A balancing board used
to improve mus-
cle strength and coordination in the
feet, ankles, and legs. A wobble board is
sometimes used after an ankle sprain.
womb See
word blindness See
alexia; dyslexia.
World Health Organization (WHO)
An international organization estab-
lished in 1948 as an agency of the
United Nations with responsibilities for
international health matters and public
health. The WHO headquarters are in
Geneva, Switzerland.
The WHO has campaigned effectively
against some infectious diseases, most
notably smallpox, tuberculosis, and mal-
aria. Other functions include sponsoring
medical research programmes, organiz-
ing a network of collaborating national
laboratories, and providing expert advice
and specific targets to its 160 member
states with regard to health matters.
worm infestation Several types of worm,
or their larvae, existing as parasites of
humans. They may live in the intestines,
blood, lymphatic system, bile ducts, or
in organs such as the liver. In many
cases, they cause few or no symptoms,
but some can cause chronic illness.
There are 2 main classes:
, which are subdiv-
ided into cestodes (tapeworms) and
trematodes (flukes).
Worm diseases found in developed
countries include
threadworm infestation,
ascariasis, whipworm infestation, toxocar-
liver-fluke infestation, and various
tapeworm infestations
. Those occurring
in tropical regions include
infestation, filariasis, guinea worm dis-
Worms may be acquired by eating
undercooked, infected meat, by contact
with soil or water containing worm lar-
vae, or by accidental ingestion of worm
eggs from soil contaminated by infected
faeces. Most infestations can be easily
eradicated with
anthelmintic drugs
wound Any damage to the skin and/or
underlying tissues caused by an accident,
act of violence, or surgery. Wounds in
which the skin or mucous membrane is
broken are called open; those in which
they remain intact are termed closed.
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