corticosteroid drug
that is used in the treatment of
and hay fever (see
rhinitis, allergic).
Beclometasone, which is prescribed as
an inhaler or nasal spray, controls the
symptoms by reducing inflammation
and mucus production in the lining of
the nose or, in asthma, inflammation
of the airways. The drug is often given
bronchodilator drugs
in the man-
agement of asthma. A severe asthma
attack may require the dose to be in-
creased. The action of beclometasone is
slow, however, and its full effect takes
several days to occur. Adverse effects of
the drug may include hoarseness, throat
irritation, and, on rare occasions, fungal
infections in the mouth. Beclometasone
is also prescribed in the form of a cream
or ointment to treat inflammation of the
skin caused by
A unit of radioactivity (see
radiation units
bed bath
A method of washing a per-
son who is confined to bed.
A flat, wingless, brown insect
about 5 mm long and 3 mm wide. Bed-
bugs live in furniture, especially beds
and carpets, emerging at night to feed
on humans by sucking blood. They are
not known to transmit disease, but their
bites are itchy and may become infected.
A metal, plastic, or fibre con-
tainer into which a patient can defaecate
or urinate without getting out of bed.
bed rest
A term used to describe peri-
ods spent in bed. Bed rest may be a
part of treatment in certain illnesses,
such as
rheumatic fever
, and for some
types of injury, such as a fractured ver-
tebra. Prolonged bed rest carries risks
such as muscle wasting, weakness, and
increased risk of blood clots developing
in the legs. Bed rest was once consid-
ered an essential part of the treatment
of many common conditions but is now
avoided whenever possible. Patients are
now encouraged to be mobile as soon
as possible after surgery.
A term used to describe a
person who is unable to leave their bed
due to illness or injury. People most
likely to be bedridden are the very
elderly, the terminally ill, and those
paralysed as the result of an accident.
pressure sores.
The common name for poor
bladder control at night (see
bee stings
insect stings.
behavioural problems in children
Behavioural problems range from mild,
of unacceptable
behaviour, which are common in most
children, to more severe problems such
as conduct disorders and refusal to go
to school. Behavioural problems may
occasionally occur in any child; special-
ist management is called for when the
problems become frequent and disrupt
school and/or family life. Some behavi-
oural problems can occur whatever the
family or home situation. In some cases,
however, stressful external events, such
as moving home or divorce, may pro-
duce periods of problem behaviour.
Behavioural problems that are common
in babies and young children include
feeding difficulties (see
and sleeping problems, such as waking
repeatedly in the night. In toddlers,
breath-holding attacks, tantrums,
ration anxiety, and
problems best dealt with by a consis-
tent and appropriate approach. Problems
are usually avoided if
the training is delayed until the child is
physically and emotionally ready.
Between the ages of 4 and 8, behav-
ioural problems such as nail-biting and
, clinginess,
and bed-wetting (see
) are so
common as to be almost normal. They
are best dealt with by a positive ap-
proach that concentrates on rewarding
good behaviour. In most cases, the child
grows out of the problem, but some-
times medical help may be needed.
An American school of
founded by John Broadus
Watson early in the 20th century. He
argued that, because behaviour, rather
than experience, was all that could be
observed in others, it should constitute
the sole basis of psychology.
behaviour therapy
A collection of tech-
niques, based on psychological theory,
for changing abnormal behaviour or
treating anxiety. The treatment relies
on 2 basic ideas: that exposure to a
feared experience under safe conditions
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