will render it less threatening, and that
desirable behaviour can be encouraged
by using a system of rewards.
Specific behaviour therapy techniques
include exposure therapy (also called
desensitization), response prevention,
flooding, and modelling. Exposure ther-
apy is commonly used to treat phobic
disorders such as
phobias, and flying phobias. It consists
of exposing the patient in stages to the
cause of the anxiety. The patient is
taught to cope with anxiety symptoms
flooding, the patient is confronted with
the anxiety-provoking stimulus all at
once, but with the support of the thera-
pist. In response prevention, the patient
is prevented from
obsessional task; the technique is used
in combination with other methods. In
the therapist acts as a
model for the patient, performing the
anxiety-provoking activity first, in order
that the patient may copy.
A rare, multisystem
disorder with recurrent
and inflammation of
the eyes, skin joints, blood vessels,
brain, and intestines. The cause of
Behget's syndrome is unknown, but it is
strongly associated with a genetically
HLA-B51. Treatment is difficult and may
The condition often
The noisy return of air from
the stomach through the mouth. Swal-
lowing air is usually an unconscious
habit, which may result from eating or
drinking too much too quickly. Some-
times, belching alleviates discomfort
caused by indigestion.
An extract of the deadly
nightshade plant that has been used
medicinally since ancient times. It con-
are used as
treating gastrointestinal disturbances.
The most common form of
(facial muscle weakness).
An alternative name
used to treat
The nonmedical term for
A term used to describe a dis-
ease that is relatively harmless. When
used to refer to tumours, benign means
noncancerous tumours that do not in-
vade or destroy local tissues and do not
spread to other sites within the body.
benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
A medical term for enlargement of the
prostate gland (see
. Benorilate is mainly used
to relieve joint pain and stiffness in
Side effects are not usually serious, but
the aspirin in the drug may cause nau-
sea or indigestion.
A widely used
preservative in eye drops and products
such as cosmetics and mouth washes.
A group of
drugs given for short periods as
and to control
the symptoms of
, which is
used as a tranquillizer, and
which is sometimes used for insomnia.
Benzodiazepines are also used in the
management of alcohol withdrawal and
in the control of
Minor adverse effects of benzodiaz-
dizziness, and forgetfulness. Unstead-
iness and slowed reactions may also
occur. Regular users may become psy-
chologically and physically dependent;
for this reason, the drugs are usually
given for courses of 2-3 weeks or less.
When the drugs are stopped suddenly,
withdrawal symptoms, such as anxiety,
occur. Benzodiazepine drugs are some-
times abused for their sedative effect.
used in the treatment of acne and
fungal skin infections (see
In acne, benzoyl peroxide also
acts by removing the surface layer of
skin, unblocking sebaceous glands.